Working With Type in Photoshop CS6
Excerpted from Adobe Photoshop CS6 Classroom in a Book. Copyright © 2012 Adobe Systems Incorporated. Used with permission of Pearson Education and Adobe Press.
In addition to the HTML version of the excerpt below, you can also download the excerpt as a PDF that retains the full design of the printed book.
In this lesson, you’ll learn how to do the following:
• Use guides to position text in a composition.
• Make a clipping mask from type.
• Merge type with other layers.
• Format text.
• Distribute text along a path.
• Create and apply type styles.
• Control type and positioning using advanced features.
This lesson will take less than an hour to complete.
Photoshop provides powerful, flexible text tools so you can add type to your images with great control and creativity.
Type in Photoshop consists of mathematically defined shapes that describe the letters, numbers, and symbols of a typeface. Many typefaces are available in more than one format, the most common formats being Type 1 or PostScript fonts, TrueType, and OpenType (see “OpenType in Photoshop” later in this lesson).
When you add type to an image in Photoshop, the characters are composed of pixels and have the same resolution as the image file—zooming in on characters shows jagged edges. However, Photoshop preserves the vector-based type outlines and uses them when you scale or resize type, save a PDF or EPS file, or print the image to a PostScript printer. As a result, you can produce type with crisp, resolution-independent edges, apply effects and styles to type, and transform its shape and size.
In this lesson, you’ll work on the layout for the cover of a technology magazine. You’ll start with the artwork you created in Lesson 6: The cover has a model, his shadow, and the orange background. You’ll add and stylize type for the cover, including warping the text.
You’ll start the lesson by viewing an image of the final composition.
1. Start Photoshop, and then immediately hold down Ctrl+Alt+Shift (Windows) or Command+Option+Shift (Mac OS) to restore the default preferences. (See “Restoring default preferences” on page 4.)
2. When prompted, click Yes to delete the Adobe Photoshop Settings file.
3. Choose File > Browse In Bridge to open Adobe Bridge.
4. In the Favorites panel on the left side of Bridge, click the Lessons folder, and then double-click the Lesson07 folder in the Content panel.
5. Select the 07End.psd file. Increase the thumbnail size to see the image clearly by dragging the thumbnail slider to the right.
You’ll apply the type treatment in Photoshop to finish the magazine cover. All of the type controls you need are available in Photoshop, so you don’t have to switch to another application to complete the project.
6. Double-click the 07Start.psd file to open it in Photoshop.
7. Choose File > Save As, rename the file 07Working.psd, and click Save.
8. Click OK if the Photoshop Format Options dialog box appears.
9. Choose Typography from the Workspace Switcher in the options bar.
The Typography workspace displays the Character, Paragraph, Paragraph Styles, Layers, and Paths panels that you’ll use in this lesson.
Creating a clipping mask from type
A clipping mask is an object or a group of objects whose shape masks other artwork so that only areas that lie within the clipping mask are visible. In effect, you are clipping the artwork to conform to the shape of the object (or mask). In Photoshop, you can create a clipping mask from shapes or letters. In this exercise, you’ll use letters as a clipping mask to allow an image in another layer to show through the letters.
Adding guides to position type
The 07Working.psd file includes a background layer, which will be the foundation for your typography. You’ll start by zooming in on the work area and using ruler guides to help position the type.
1. Choose View > Fit On Screen to see the whole cover clearly.
2. Choose View > Rulers to display rulers along the left and top borders of the image window.
3. Drag a vertical guide from the left ruler to the center of the cover (4.25”).
Note: After you type, you must commit your editing in the layer by clicking the Commit Any Current Edits button or switching to another tool or layer. You cannot commit to current edits by pressing Enter or Return; doing so merely creates a new line of type.
Adding point type
Now you’re ready to add type to the composition. Photoshop lets you create horizontal or vertical type anywhere in an image. You can enter point type (a single letter, word, or line) or paragraph type. You will do both in this lesson. First, you’ll create point type.
1. In the Layers panel, select the Background layer.
2. Select the Horizontal Type tool, and, in the options bar, do the following:
• Choose a sans serif typeface, such as Myriad Pro, from the Font Family pop-up menu, and choose Semibold from the Font Style pop-up menu.
• Type 144 pt for the Size, and press Enter or Return.
• Click the Center Text button.
3. In the Character panel, change the Tracking value to 100.
4. Click on the center guide you added to set an insertion point, and type DIGITAL in all capital letters. Then click the Commit Any Current Edits button in the options bar.
The word “DIGITAL” is added to the cover, and it appears in the Layers panel as a new type layer, DIGITAL. You can edit and manage the type layer as you would any other layer. You can add or change the text, change the orientation of the type, apply anti-aliasing, apply layer styles and transformations, and create masks. You can move, restack, and copy a type layer, or edit its layer options, just as you would for any other layer.
5. Press Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac OS), and drag the “DIGITAL” text to move it to the top of the cover, if it’s not there already.
6. Choose File > Save to save your work so far.
Making a clipping mask and applying a shadow
You added the letters in black, the default text color. However, you want the letters to appear to be filled with an image of a circuit board, so you’ll use the letters to make a clipping mask that will allow another image layer to show through.
1. Open the circuit_board.tif file, which is in the Lesson07 folder. You can open it using Bridge or by choosing File > Open.
2. In Photoshop, choose Window > Arrange > 2-Up Vertical. The circuit_board.tif and 07Working.psd files appear onscreen together. Click the circuit_board.tif file to ensure that it’s the active window.
3. Select the Move tool. Then, hold down the Shift key as you drag the Background layer from the Layers panel in the circuit_board.tif file onto the center of the 07Working.psd file. Pressing Shift as you drag centers the circuit_board.tif image in the composition.
A new layer—Layer 1— appears in the Layers panel for the 07Working.psd file. This new layer contains the image of the circuit board, which will show through the type. But before you make the clipping mask, you’ll resize the circuit board image, as it’s currently too large for the composition.
4. Close the circuit_board.tif file without saving any changes to it.
5. In the 07Working.psd file, select Layer 1, and then choose Edit > Transform > Scale.
6. Grab a corner handle on the bounding box for the circuit board. Press Shift as you resize it to approximately the same width as the area of text. Pressing Shift retains the image proportions. Reposition the circuit board so that the image covers the text.
7. Press Enter or Return to apply the transformation.
8. Double-click the Layer 1 name, and change it to Circuit Board. Then press Enter or Return, or click away from the name in the Layers panel, to apply the change.
Tip: You can also make a clipping mask by holding down the Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) key and clicking between the Circuit Board and DIGITAL type layers.
9. Select the Circuit Board layer, if it isn’t already selected, and choose Create Clipping Mask from the Layers panel menu.
The circuit board now shows through the DIGITAL letters. A small arrow in theCircuit Board layer and the underlined type layer name indicate the clipping maskis applied. Next, you’ll add an inner shadow to give the letters depth.
10. Select the DIGITAL layer to make it active, click the Add A Layer Style button at the bottom of the Layers panel, and then choose Inner Shadow from the pop-up menu.
11. In the Layer Style dialog box, change the Blending Mode to Multiply, Opacity to 48%, Distance to 18, Choke to 0, and Size to 16. Then click OK.
12. Choose File > Save to save your work so far.
Tool tips from the Photoshop evangelist
Julieanne Kost is an official Adobe Photoshop evangelist.
Type tool tricks
• Shift-click in the image window with the Type tool (T) to create a new type layer—in case you’re close to another block of type and Photoshop tries to autoselect it.
• Double-click the thumbnail icon on any type layer in the Layers panel to select all of the type on that layer.
• With any text selected, right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS) on the text to access the context menu. Choose Check Spelling to run a spell check.
Creating type on a path
In Photoshop, you can create type that follows along a path you create with a pen or shape tool. The direction the type flows depends on the order in which anchor points were added to the path. When you use the Horizontal Type tool to add text to a path, the letters are perpendicular to the baseline of the path. If you change the location or shape of the path, the type moves with it.
You’ll create type on a path to make it look as if questions are coming from the model’s mouth. We’ve already created the path for you.
1. In the Layers panel, select the Background layer.
2. Select the Paths tab in the Layers panel group.
3. In the Paths panel, select the path named Speech Path. The path appears to be coming out of the model’s mouth.
4. Select the Horizontal Type tool.
5. In the Character panel, select the following settings:
• Font Family: Myriad Pro
• Font Style: Regular
• Font Size: 16 pt
• Tracking: -10
• Color: White
• All Caps
6. Move the Type tool over the path. When a small slanted line appears across the I-bar, click the beginning of the path, and type What’s new with Games?
7. Select the word “GAMES,” and change its font style to Bold. Click the Commit Any Current Edits button in the options bar.
8. In the Layers panel, select the What’s New with Games layer, and then choose Duplicate Layer from the Layers panel menu. Name the new layer What’s new with MP3s?
9. With the Type tool, select “Games,” and replace it with MP3s. Click the Commit Any Current Edits button in the options bar.
10. Choose Edit > Free Transform. Rotate the left side of the path approximately 30 degrees, and then shift the path up above the first path. Click the Commit Transform button in the options bar.
11. Repeat steps 8–10, replacing the word “GAMES” with PHONES. Rotate the left side of the path approximately -30 degrees, and move it below the original path.
12 Choose File > Save to save your work so far.
Warping point type
The text on a path is more interesting than straight lines would be, but you’ll warp the text to make it more playful. Warping lets you distort type to conform to a variety of shapes, such as an arc or a wave. The warp style you select is an attribute of the type layer—you can change a layer’s warp style at any time to change the overall shape of the warp. Warping options give you precise control over the orientation and perspective of the warp effect.
1. Scroll or use the Hand tool to move the visible area of the image window so that the sentences to the left of the model are in the center of the screen.
2. Right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS) the What’s new with Games? layer in the Layers panel, and choose Warp Text from the context menu.
3. In the Warp Text dialog box, choose Wave from the Style menu, and select the Horizontal option. Specify the following values: Bend, +33%; Horizontal Distortion, -23%; and Vertical Distortion, +5%. Then click OK.
The words “What’s new with games?” appear to float like a wave on the cover. Repeat steps 2 and 3 to warp the other two text layers you typed on a path.
4. Save your work.
Designing paragraphs of type
All of the text you’ve written on this cover so far has been a few discrete words or lines—point type. However, many designs call for full paragraphs of text. You can design complete paragraphs of type in Photoshop; you can even apply paragraph styles. You don’t have to switch to a dedicated page layout program for sophisticated paragraph type controls.
Using guides for positioning
You will add paragraphs to the cover in Photoshop. First, you’ll add some guides to the work area to help you position the paragraph, and create a new paragraph style.
1. Drag a guide from the left vertical ruler, placing it approximately 1/4” from the right side of the cover.
2. Drag a guide down from the top horizontal ruler, placing it approximately 2” from the top of the cover.
Adding paragraph type from a sticky note
You’re ready to add the text. In a real design environment, the text might be provided to you in a word-processing document or the body of an email message, which you could copy and paste into Photoshop. Or you might have to type it in. Another easy way to add a bit of text is for the copywriter to attach it to the image file in a sticky note, as we’ve done for you here.
1. Double-click the yellow sticky note in the lower right corner of the image window to open the Notes panel. Expand the Notes panel, if necessary, to see all the text.
2. In the Notes panel, select all the text. Press Ctrl+C (Windows) or Command+C (Mac OS) to copy the text to the clipboard. Close the Notes panel.
Tip: If you accidentally select the “DIGITAL” text, press Shift as you start to drag the text box, and then release it to continue to drag. Pressing Shift ensures that Photoshop creates a new text layer.
3. Select the Model layer. Then, with the Horizontal Type tool, drag a text box on the right side of the magazine cover. The text box should be about 4 inches by 8 inches, about 1/4” from the right edge of the cover. Align the top and right edges using the guides you just added.
4. Press Ctrl+V (Windows) or Command+V (Mac OS) to paste the text. The new text layer is at the top of the Layers panel, so the text appears in front of the model.
The pasted text is huge, because your default is set to 144 pt text. You’ll change it all to a readable size before stylizing it.
5. Click in the pasted text, and press Ctrl+A (Windows) or Command+A (Mac OS) to select all the text. Then change its size to 18 pt in the Character panel.
6. Select the first three lines (“The Trend Issue”), and then apply the following settings in the Character panel:
• Font Family: Myriad Pro (or another sans serif font)
• Font Style: Regular
• Font Size: 70 pt
• Leading: 55 pt
• Color: White
7. Click the Paragraph tab in the Character panel group to make the Paragraph panel active.
8. With “The Trend Issue” still selected, click the Right Align Text option.
9. Click the Character tab to open the Character panel again. Then select just the
word “Trend,” and change the Font Style to Bold.
10. Click the Commit Any Current Edits button in the options bar.
11. Click in the blank area of the Layers panel to ensure that no layers are selected.
You’ve formatted the title.
Creating paragraph styles
You’ll create a paragraph style to format the rest of the text. A paragraph style is a collection of type attributes that you can apply to an entire paragraph with a single click. Paragraph styles in Photoshop are similar to styles in page layout applications such as Adobe InDesign and popular word-processing applications, but you’ll probably notice some differences in the way they work. By default, all text you create in Photoshop has the Basic paragraph style applied.
1. Click the Create New Paragraph Style button at the bottom of the Paragraph Styles panel.
2. Double-click Paragraph Style 1 to change its attributes.
3. In the Paragraph Style Options dialog box, specify the following settings:
• Style Name: Cover Teasers
• Font Family: Myriad Pro
• Font Style: Bold
• Font Size: 28 pt
• Leading: 28 pt
• Color: White
4. Select Indents And Spacing from the list on the left in the Paragraph Style Options dialog box.
5. Choose Right from the Alignment menu, and then click OK.
You’ve created a style that you can apply to quickly format the teaser titles on the cover. You’ll create another style for the subheadings, which should be smaller.
6. Click the Create New Paragraph Style button at the bottom of the Paragraph Styles panel again.
7. Double-click Paragraph Style 1, and then specify the following:
• Style Name: Teaser subheads
• Font Family: Myriad Pro
• Font Style: Regular
• Font Size: 22 pt
• Leading: 28 pt
• Color: White
8. Select Indents And Spacing from the list on the left in the Paragraph Style Options dialog box.
9. Choose Right from the Alignment menu, and then click OK.
Applying paragraph styles
Applying a paragraph style is easy. With the text selected, simply click the style name. If the text has been changed from the Basic paragraph style, Photoshop retains those overrides and applies only the attributes of the style that do not conflict with the overrides. In that case, clear overrides to apply all the style’s attributes.
1. Select the “What’s Hot” text, and then select Cover Teasers in the Paragraph Styles panel.
Photoshop applies some of the Cover Teasers attributes to the paragraph, but not all of them because there were style overrides in effect when you applied the style.
2. Click the Clear Override button at the bottom of the Paragraph Styles panel.
3. Select the text beneath “What’s Hot,” and then select Teaser subheads in the Paragraph Styles panel. Click the Clear Override button again.
4. Repeat steps 1–3 for the “What’s Not” and “Coming this year” sections. Now there is just one more change to make to specific areas of the text.
5. Select “Coming this year” and all the text that follows it. Then, in the Character panel, change the text color to Black.
6. Finally, click the Commit Any Current Edits button to accept the type changes.
Tip: Use the Adobe Illustrator Glyphs panel to preview OpenType options: Copy your text in Photoshop and paste it into an Illustrator document. Then, choose Window > Type > Glyphs. Select the text you want to change, and choose Show > Alternates For Current Selection. Double-click a glyph to apply it, and when you’ve finished, copy and paste the new type into your Photoshop file.
Opentype in Photoshop
OpenType is a cross-platform font file format developed jointly by Adobe and Microsoft. The format uses a single font file for both Mac OS and Windows, so you can move files from one platform to another without font substitution or reflowed text. OpenType offers widely expanded character sets and layout features, such as swashes and discretionary ligatures, that aren’t available in traditional PostScript and TrueType fonts. This, in turn, provides richer linguistic support and advanced typography control. Here are some highlights of OpenType.
The OpenType menu
The Character panel menu includes an OpenType submenu that displays all available features for a selected OpenType font, including ligatures, alternates, and fractions. Dimmed features are unavailable for that typeface; a check mark appears next to features that have been applied.
To add a discretionary ligature to two OpenType letters, such as to “th” in the Bickham Script Standard typeface, select them in the image, and choose OpenType > Discretionary Ligatures from the Character panel menu.
Adding swashes or alternate characters works the same way. Select the letter, such as a capital “T” in Bickham Script, and choose OpenType > Swash to change the ordinary capital into a dramatically ornate swash T.
Creating true fractions
Type fractions as usual—for example, 1/2—and then select the characters, and from the Character panel menu, choose OpenType > Fractions. Photoshop applies the true fraction (1/2).
Adding vertical type
You’re almost done with the text for the magazine cover. All that remains to do is to add the volume number in the upper right corner. You’ll use vertical type to add it.
1. Choose Select > Deselect Layers. Then select the Vertical Type tool, which is hidden under the Horizontal Type tool.
2. Press the Shift key, and begin dragging in the upper right corner of the cover, near the letter “L.” Release the Shift key, and drag a vertical rectangle.
Pressing the Shift key as you begin dragging ensures that you create a new text box instead of selecting the title.
3. Type VOL 9.
4. Select the letters either by dragging or triple-clicking them, and then, in the Character panel, select the following:
• Font Family: a serif typeface, such as Myriad Pro
• Font Style: a light or narrow style, such as Light Condensed
• Font size: 15 pt
• Tracking: 150
• Color: Black
5. Click the Commit Any Current Edits button in the options bar. Your vertical text now appears as the layer named VOL 9. Use the Move tool to drag it to the right, if necessary.
Now, you’ll clean up a bit.
6. Click the note to select it. Then right-click (Windows) or Control-click (Mac OS) and choose Delete Note from the context menu; click Yes to confirm that you want to delete the note.
7. Hide the guides: Choose the Hand tool, and then press Ctrl+; (Windows) or Command+; (Mac OS). Then zoom out to get a nice look at your work.
8. Choose File > Save to save your work.
Congratulations! You’ve added and stylized all of the type on the Digital magazine cover. Now that the magazine cover is ready to go, you’ll flatten it and prepare it for printing.
9. Choose File > Save As, rename the file 07Working_flattened, and click Save.
Click OK if you see the Photoshop Format Options dialog box.
Keeping a layered version lets you return to the 07Working.psd file in the future to edit it.
10. Choose Layer > Flatten Image.
11. Choose File > Save, and then close the image window.
1. How does Photoshop treat type?
2. How is a text layer the same as or different from other layers in Photoshop?
3. What is a clipping mask, and how do you make one from type?
4. What is a paragraph style?
1. Type in Photoshop consists of mathematically defined shapes that describe the letters, numbers, and symbols of a typeface. When you add type to an image in Photoshop, the characters are composed of pixels and have the same resolution as the image file. However, Photoshop preserves the vector-based type outlines and uses them when you scale or resize type, save a PDF or EPS file, or print the image to a PostScript printer.
2. Type that is added to an image appears in the Layers panel as a text layer that can be edited and managed in the same way as any other kind of layer. You can add and edit the text, change the orientation of the type, and apply anti-aliasing as well as move, restack, copy, and change the options for layers.
3. A clipping mask is an object or group whose shape masks other artwork so that only areas that lie within the shape are visible. To convert the letters on any text layer to a clipping mask, select both the text layer and the layer you want to show through the letters, and then choose Create Clipping Mask from the Layers panel menu.
4. A paragraph style is a collection of type attributes that you can quickly apply to an entire paragraph.